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Argument on Child Development

Child development basically entails the stages in which a child changes speedily physically and psychologically from birth through adolescence to adulthood which generally leave parents wondering how best to look after them at each stage. It impacts them on some of the topics like birth order, gender, appearance, and the effects of parental behavior on child development.

Thesis: During child development there are many factors to consider and parents come across a certain difference between their children when it comes to gender or behavior, therefore, it always dawns to them that they have to use different strategies and tactics when raising either boy child or girl child. In our study, we have come with hypotheses to help us prove the concerns that the parents are to consider during child development. The stereotype of sex differences as evidenced by the behavior of children in different age groups. The females are frequently characterized to be more passive, nurturing, responsible, sociable, and more dependent. The conclusions imply to the observable behavior witnessed on the children of various genders within the same age.

However, it is not possible to conclude that the behaviors characterizing the male and female children are universal because one has to ask him or herself one important question, are these traits common to all societies. Additionally, it is difficult to ascertain and establish whether sex roles are biologically determined or learned, that is, universal behavior. The dependency behavior claimed to be observed in the females is a stereotype as far as the development of children is concerned. Under dependency, the researchers point out that girls are more help-seeking, attention seeking, and seeking physical contact. However, this is not true in the ideal world as no evidence can be adduced to this effect.

There is also another stereotype that alludes that girls between the age of three and eleven are more sociable that boys. The sociability behavior includes all acts that are aimed at offering or extending a friendly interaction with one another. This behavior is much associated with the dependency stereotype. The difference between the ability of boys to seek friendly interactions compared to what is observed in girls is not such significant to conclude that girls are more sociable.

Some researchers have delved into the passivity stereotype of the women and ascertained with the dependency behavior. However, this concept is hard to operationalize due to the difficulty to agree on a single working definition of passivity. Kagan and Moss list among other behavioral indices of passivity in the formative years of development such as retreat when dominated by a sibling, no reaction when goal object gets lost, withdrawal when blocked from attaining a goal by environmental obstacles, and withdrawal from mildly noxious or potentially perilous situations. Many scholars contend that boys display attention seeking behavior than girls as they are much more responsive to social withdrawal in the society. Those displaying a withdrawn behavior among other things show characters of compliance, hiding, avoiding, breaking interactions, deprecation of self, and acting shy.

The hypothesis that there is an effect of gender difference on playgrounds. In the event of children of different engages together on a play, they identify their genders with time and this makes them change the nature of their play. When they engage in gender-specific play, they always tend to play more same gender aristocrats and forget about opposite gender aristocrats and this tendency continues to increase as the children grow older in the school year (Whitehurst & Lonigan, 1998). In some cultures, boys are usually separated from playing with girls at a very early age, however, other culture like Western Europe always allow their children to attend the same schools but when it comes to playing they engage in same-genders. Moreover, children have different tools they use for play in that boys spend a lot of time with gun toys, transportation toys, scheming objects, and blocks while girls spend a lot of time playing with art materials, stuffed animals, and dolls. Parenting is also a great influence on gender differences in play since these differences outspread to differences in how mothers or fathers intermingle with sons and daughters.

The hypothesis that girls would be more likely to seek partners to play while boys would play more independently because of cultural internalization. In some cultures, boys always play alone and perform most of the community duties independently because they like to outstand each other in everything that they do and it believed in some communities that in order for a boy to develop to an adult he must perform an extraordinary action like killing a lion. Girls on the other hand always seek partnership whenever they want to play because on several occasions they feel insecure thus their parents always advise them to be with their gender-peers (Duncan & Brooks‐Gunn, 2000). Cultural internalization in most of the communities’ states that boys always engage in activities and plays they can enjoy independently while girls spend most of the time in playing with things like dolls which always need a partnership. Moreover, boys are naturally meant and expected to be brave since they are considered to grow up into a defendant gentleman in the family while girls are to be protected and guided in most of the activities in the communities majorly those that require hard labor.

The hypothesis that girls whose father lived with them and left would have worse relationship patterns than those who never had a father living them. Girls who have grown up with their father around tend to be much addictive to them and are always provided with anything they need. Poor relationship patterns come up when the girl has that attitude that everything is always provision of anything that they want thus enhance difficulty when they are growing up to be adults since they will be craving for a lot of things which may not be provided when married. On the other hand, those girls who have never have a father living with them throughout their life adapt to sacrificial life such that they unanimously work hard and sacrifice a lot in order to make through in life and so they are understanding thus have good relationship patterns. Fatherless girls often develop determined spirits and learn how to survive in the very early stages of their life. They always make loyal friends and can love like no other, ultimately, they just want to be loved and also to love back. Problem with these fatherless girls is that they may be mystifying and rusty since they can fall into relationship traps by selecting the erroneous partners.

The hypothesis that different family types may bring about differences in child development. The difference between the children during development rises whether a child grows with both the parents or grow with a single parent or in other cases lives in an extended family. A child living with both parents in early life will have privilege of acquiring enough support especially basic needs that will sustain him/her during development stages while a single parented or orphaned child may in most cases have difficulty in obtaining and get the best care from the mother or father or guardian (King & Sobolewski, 2006). In most cases when you find a child developing well with a single parent then the reason is that the family rich or they inherited wealth from the husband. Research shows that in early stages of child development, a child needs parental love and care in that there should be mutual bond majorly between the mother and the child.

The hypothesis that children who grow up in extended family will obey authority better. An extended family is the one consisting of parents and grandparents living in one place and maybe plus cousins. A child that grows up in an extended family gets a lot of care, help in case of a problem, and there is the provision of advice on what is right and wrong (Fincham, 1998). Benefits of living in an extended family are that the children always have someone to talk to whenever they want, grandparents see their grandchildren growing up and are being educated on matters concerning life, and the children have cousins around to play with thus no boredom as these kinds of children grow up. Children who grow up around their grandparents are taught good morals, therefore, they acquire better relations which in turn nurture them to obey the authority.

The hypothesis that children who grow up in nurturant single-parent homes will have greater motivation. Children who grow with either their mother or father will have greater motivation since they grow up to be responsible as they perform most of the life activities independently and know tactics to survive. Advantages of growing up with a single parent are that the atmosphere is calmer and parents feel independent that always enhance motivation to the family from other families.

Initial cognitive endowment and character development are closely related concepts that need a careful analysis. Much of the cognitive processing that takes place in infancy does operate in support of a goal directed activity. Human infants are described as active in seeking out regularities in the environment about them. The child converts experiences into profound end structures. The human infant is fully equipped with a variety of biological process that ensures the complacent attachment of the infant and the caretaker. It is a common practice to observe that during a child’s first and half year of life is faced with a lot of interaction and sociable behavior. Social interaction is both self-rewarding and self-propelled thus forming a critical communicative tool. Withholding social response to the child’s initiatives can be one of the most disruptive thing one can inflict on an infant. Lastly, it is crucial to note that much of the early infant interactions takes place in a constrained and familiar situation thus showing a surprisingly high degree of systematic and orderly interaction.

The learning of a native language is considered the greatest accomplishment for nay infant and researchers have failed to unravel the manner in which toddlers grasp native language. However, through constant hearing of words said by adults, they are capable of grasping the words and statements and as they repeat after them. Children are uniquely adapted to take notice of distinctions in the real world events and pick up corresponding linguistic distinctions so that they can communicate about them. They have the ability to distinguish between nonspecific and specific events, continuous and punctual events, and processes and states. Additionally, the infants have the capacity to decipher between causative and no causative actions. Therefore, the interactions and bonding between adults and children heavily rely on these abilities to differentiate between items.

An adult can also help a child develop language through processing can be through the encouragement and modelling lexical and phrasal substitutes for familiar vocal and gestural means that affect several communicative functions. This demonstrates a prior child’s ability to illicit mastery of the request mode. The study therefore concludes that a speaker does not only have the intention of communicating through words but also passes information through unnatural means including facial expression.

Avoiding raising an antisocial child

Parents across especially the mothers grow their children with the fear of the same children turning antisocial in their adulthood. Therefore, mothers teach their children on appropriate involvement in the society through their continuous engagements. Mothers play a significant role in shaping the character and behavior of their children principally because they spend so much time together.

Culture is another important aspect that contributes to role differentiation between male and females. Cultural practices, ideas, and norms are communicated in a major way through verbal communication. This information is therefore put forward in form of propositions and hypotheses. The various elements of culture are effectively transmitted to cultural novices indirectly in the course of their participation and observation of social relations and rituals. Ideas, values and norms that make up a certain culture in the general belief of a novice is that they are extrinsically determined. When cultural values, ideas, and norms become part and parcel of an individual’s personality system, then the culture is said to be internalized. A cultural proposition further becomes true if it expresses a traditional idea, norm, or value. Additionally, the values and ideas proposed by the cultural proposition have to be perceived to true.

A cultural proposition only becomes culturally constituted, that is, internalized; it must be acquired in the first place by the social actor. The acquisition takes place in levels the first being the involuntary conviction of a cultural novice without assenting to it. One can even reject the proposition outright on the onset because both the proposition and cultural initiate appear similar. At the second level, a cultural novice acquires the proposition as an ordinary cliché and therefore honors it much as a breach than in the observance level. It I however, inadequate to explain cultural internalization by referring to conscious cognition and motivation alone considering the various cultural and ideological concerns available in the society.

In conclusion, child development is influenced by various perspectives which entail factors like family types, gender plays, parental care, and socioeconomic status. The input of the mother is so important in the internalization of cultural values, norms and principles by a child in his or her development. Additionally, the environment in which an infant is born and raised affects the cultural internalization process. Apart from environment and the input of parents in shaping behavior and culture in the society. Furthermore, education contributes to shaping of behavior between boys and girls of the same age. However, it is still very difficult to arrive at the conclusion that universally males and females behave in a similar manner throughout the globe. This is so because, different cultures have their own way of defining and ascribing value to a certain form of behavior. The conceptualization and internalization of various cultural norms and ideologies is influenced by diverse factors that also depend on the context of interaction.

Significant still to note is the fact that, the dependency levels of both male and female differ so much because of the different cultural affiliations that we identify ourselves with. As much as parents would want to please their children, they ought not to give in to every demand from them because they risk culturing a society that lacks appropriate morals. The socialization aspect of children is as important in their developmental experience as well as counter-antisocial behavior. Social behavior plays a significant role in ensuring that children in the childhood and adulthood do not struggle to make friends. Antisocial behavior inhibits constructive engagements between various members of the society hence limiting the ability of any society to progress.

In essence, a child that acquires an effective social behavior is described as interactive and fully engaged in beneficial interactions with others. This supposition congruently concurs with the saying that no man is an island. Dependency is not a bad thing even for the males because it is through this form of relationship that innovation is born. 

                                                       Reference

Duncan, G. J., & Brooks‐Gunn, J. (2000). Family poverty, welfare reform, and child

             development. Child development71(1), 188-196.

Fincham, F. (1998). Child Development and Marital Relations. Child Development69(2), 543.

            http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1132183

King, V., & Sobolewski, J. M. (2006). Nonresident fathers’ contributions to adolescent well‐

             being. Journal of Marriage and Family68(3), 537-557.

Whitehurst, G. J., & Lonigan, C. J. (1998). Child development and emergent literacy. Child

              development69(3), 848-872.

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