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1 (a) Selective attention is comprehensively defined as the act of focusing on a given object for a certain specified period of time while paying little attention to occurrences taking place simultaneously but regarded irrelevant. Since it is very impossible to pay attention to all occurrences and events, the human beings employ selective attention to choose what or which stimuli that is significant. The concept of selective attention is related to learning in one simple way in that one cannot learn well with distractors around. Selective attention enables a learner to pay close attention to what is being taught while leaving out what is not important (Yao, Pang, Shen & Gao, 2017).

  1. c) The concept of selective attention is perfectly applied in a broad range of activities that make up our daily lives. For instance, I am a good football player and I have played several matches for my school. During the match, one has to concentrate and put focus on the game despite the chants and songs by fans. In future, I plan to use selective attention to ignore people in the workplace who would want to see me fall down. Dispelling distractors would ensure that I put my synergy and focus on that one thing, to become the best football player (Yao, Pang, Shen & Gao, 2017).

2 (a).spaced repetition involves the study and critical review of any information at a gradual but increasing intervals.

(b) The concept is said to embed information and knowledge to the memory for the long-term. It therefore involves the spacing of learning or studying events apart by constantly reviewing the knowledge items instead of just cramming the data. The concept is also said to facilitate active recalling in a superior way. Additionally, learning is retained over the long-run as well as helping in the prolonging of the forgetting curve. In the bid to optimize the learning, it is important make sure every bit of information is okay and right. We want to spend the minimum amount of time to learn any piece of information such that it permanently stays in our memory. All the time you spare not repeating things you already know well you can either enjoy with your family and friends or learn new things to increase your level of knowledge. Learn more in less time

(c) Just to recall, as students, everyone is excited by the feeling to pass and therefore would try to do everything in their power to achieve. However, by applying the spaced repetition it becomes possible to investigate every bit of information to understand it and store in the memory for long-term. In the future, I would apply this concept to ensure that every bit of information regarding a certain item, when corrected, I shall be able to master certain targets over a short period of time.

3 (a) habits have a huge role to play in influencing how we behave as humans. Selective attention allows you to filter out your wife and kids and concentrate on the match winning goal. Sadly it might not help your relationship (Roitblat & Riley, 2018). 

(b) As human beings, we are defined by the type of behavior we exhibit and therefore, good habits act as praise and a motivation to an individual to display suitable behavior. Habits are not natural or inherited but acquired hence the reason they are described as routine practices. As human beings, we often consciously repeat a process or an action before it becomes a routine. Efficient habit formation does not only involve the creation of one habit but an individual can as well have several habits formed simultaneously. These habits correlate to each other therefore making it almost impossible to notice them. Some studies reveal that selective attention is the result of the mind working to store memories. Because one's working memory can only hold a limited amount of information at any particular time thus bringing about cases of a motorbike losing praise and recognition from its loyal customers.

(c) As a player in any game, for you to make it your favorite game, you have to have a rough idea regarding the game. Additionally, one gathers information from people who have interacted with the game. The period of time that an individual can take to develop certain habits that define him varies greatly. In the future, this concept can possibly help me choose only those habits that will conform to the needs of customers and the guiding principles of the society. So the feedback loop generally starts with a cue that comes from the game, which triggers a response or routine from the player. The game treats that routine, and updates itself to provide the player with new cues. Here’s an example; a monster appears on the screen. That’s a cue the player attacks the monster until it dies The game shows the monster’s death animation. A little chest appears on the ground. Selective attention is helpful to a learner who objectively and purposely want to pay a closer attention to something or somebody (Havranek, Rusnak & Sokolova, 2017).


Havranek, T., Rusnak, M., & Sokolova, A. (2017). Habit formation in consumption: A meta-        analysis. European Economic Review, 95, 142-167.

Roitblat, H. L., & Riley, D. A. (2018). Selective attention and related cognitive processes in         pigeons. In Cognitive processes in animal behavior (pp. 249-276). Routledge.

Yao, N., Pang, X., Shen, M., & Gao, Z. (2017). The Influence of Working Memory Load of         Binding on Selective Attention.


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